The Cathedral of Saint Tryphon (Serbo-Croatian: Katedrala Svetog Tripuna/Катедрала Светог Трипуна) in Kotor is one of two Roman Catholic cathedrals in Montenegro. It is the seat of the Catholic Bishopric of Kotor which covers the entire gulf, currently led by Bishop Ilija Janjić.
Flags as the state symbols were introduced only in the time of Petar II Petrovic-Njegos. Before him, the principal Montenegrin flag had been the alaj-barjak (regimental colors) with a single symbol on it – the cross (krst). The Montenegrins gathered around krstas either at meetings or before battles.
Festival & Events in January
Vrela zima u brdima – Kolasin, Zabljak, Niksic, Rozaje, Berane, Cetinje (Hot winter in the hills)
Very rich tourist manifestation with lots of culturally- artistic and entertaining events. Hot winter in the hills and numerous shows which are a part of it are held in the towns if north Montenegro, as well as on the slopes and ski paths of Durmitor, Bjelasica, Sinjajevina… Numerous guest appearances by music stars, parties in cafes, sports events, various programs, in both hotels and in the open are just a part of the rich offer of this manifestation.
Much of Montenegrins music is an acquired taste to Western ears, though some of the choral works are easy to appreciate. The vocal tradition features funeral laments, generally sung by women, featuring stories about the dead person, though the lilting songs of the Boka seamen are altogether more cheerfull. The two national instruments are the flute, played by the Montenegrin people who watch the animals, and the single-string violin called the Gusle, invariably played with a vocal accompaniment.
The gusle is a primitive single-stringed musical instrument (and musical style) traditionally used in the Dinarides region of the Balkans. The instrument is always accompanied by singing; musical folklore, specifically epic poetry. The gusle player (guslar) holds the instrument vertically between his knees, with the left hand fingers on the strings. The strings are never pressed to the neck, giving a harmonic and unique sound.
Montenegrin’s are a nation and South Slavic people mainly living in the Balkans, primarily inhabiting Montenegro. Migrant communities exist in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Albania, the Republic of Macedonia, Turkey, United States, Argentina, Germany, Luxembourg, Chile, Canada, and Australia.
Serbo-Croatian was the language of Montenegro, Serbia, Bosnia Herzegovina and Croatia but Montenegro is (so far) the only former Yugoslav Republic that has not called its language after the name of the state (eg; Serbian, Croat, Bosnian etc). Nevertheless, Montenegrins PEN ( The international Association of Poets, Playwrights, Editors, Essayists and Novelists) has already declared there is no scientific or political reason for the Montenegrins language not to be named, scientifically and constitutionally, by it’s name.
Montenegro has a strong literary tradition dating back nearly a thousand years. The oldest literary work, Kingdom of the Slavs, was written in Bar in the 12th century by an anonymous Benedictine priest. Monasteries and other libraries contain a number of manuscripts from the 13th century, many illustrated with magnificent miniatures, but book production really stems from the introduction to Cetinje of the first printing press in southern Europe, and one of the first anywhere on the continent, in 1494.
National costume is not much in evidence these days, even in the remoter areas. Seventy-five years ago a highlander would typically be wearing a red embroided waistcoat, a white coat, dark breeches and white leggings. Around his shoulders, pashmina-style, would be draped wide all-purpose wrap. Arms were carried at all the times, often extravagantly, including not just several pistols but knives and a sword as well. A man would not wish to be seen without his belts. On his head every male would, in keeping with his sovereign, wear a traditional black rimless hat its crown embroidered with red and gold. These colours were said to declare red for blood, gold for glory and black for remembrance. Until 1910, this was also battle dress.
Montenegrin cuisine can be divided into northern,continental and Mediterranean. Nearly all produce is organic, and tastes are distinctive. A traditional from of cooking is ispod – ‘under the coals’ – in a pot known as a sac. The northern area features forests berries, blueberries, raspberries and strawberries, also herbal teas and wild mushrooms.
The architecture of Montenegro is a mixture of many influences, from Roman and Venetian to Ottoman and modern times.
Montenegro has a number of significant cultural and historical sites, including heritage sites from the pre-Romanesque, Gothic and Baroque periods.
The Montenegrin coastal region is especially well known for its religious monuments, including the Cathedral of Saint Tryphon, the basilica of St. Luke (over 800 years), Gospa od Skrpjela (Our Lady of the Rock), the Savina Monastery, the Cetinje Monastery and others.
This area, sometimes called Venetian Montenegro, is full of Venetian architecture, mainly in Cattaro (Kotor) and Perasto (Perast): the ancient city of Cattaro is listed on the UNESCO World Heritage list.
The Byzantine influence in architecture and in religious artwork is especially apparent in the country’s interior.
The majority of architecture of Montenegro is Byzantine, Latin or Venetian (Gothic, Romanesque, Baroque) and Ottoman.
The architecture of “Storica Cattaro” (venetian for “Stari Kotor”)
Four centuries of Venetian domination have given the city the typical Venetian architecture, that contributed to make Kotor a UNESCO world heritage site.
The Venetian fortification system of Kotor (that venetians called “Cattaro”), which protects it from the sea, is actually a wall 4.5 km long, 20 m high and 15 m wide, and is preserved as one of the world’s historic values by the UNESCO.
The construction of the ramparts were built and rebuilt up to the 18th century. The oldest town gate of Cattaro, of the three existing in the town, is the “South” gate which was partially constructed in the 9th century. The “North” and the “Main” gates were built in the Renaissance style by the first half of the 16th century. The most representative monument of Roman architecture in the Adriatic is the magnificent Cathedral of Saint Tryphon, constructed in 1166 and built on the remains of the former temple from the 9th century. There are the remains of the fresco’s from the 14th century and the valuable treasury with domestic and Venetian golden works dating from the 14th to the 20th century.
Besides the Cathedral, in the heart of the old town, there are magnificent examples of sacral architecture originating from 12th till 20th century:
- The Romanic church of St. Lucas was built in 1195, while the Romanic church of St. Ana dates from the end of the 12th century and has frescos dating back from the 15th century.
- The Romanic church of St. Mary dates from 1221. The church contains the remains of a monumental fresco painting as well as an early Christian baptistry.-
- The Gothic church of St. Mihovil was built on the remains of the Benediction monastery from the 7th century with frescos dating back from the 15th century.
- St. Clara’s church dates from the 14th century with the extremely beautiful marble altar, the work of Francesco Cabianca, from the 18th century.
- The Church of Lady of Health originates from the 15th century.
- The Orthodox Church of St. Nicolas was built by the beginning of the 20th century with a valuable collection of icons.
There are also numerous palaces in venetian style in the Kotor Stari Grad:
The “Drago palace” with Gothic windows from the 15th century; the “Bizanti palace” from the 17th century; the “Pima palace”, with typical Venetian renaissance and baroque forms from the 16th century; the “Grubonia palace” with the built-in emblem of the old Kotor’s pharmacy established in 1326; the “Gregurina palace”, from the 17th century, which today contains the Naval museum, and finally the “Clock tower”, from the 16th century, with the medieval pillory just beside it.